Chatbots are currently being used in a variety of public arenas. Chatbots are being used as tutors and in the classroom. For example, CLIVE is used to practice language, help users0 conversational skills, and is based on myCybertwin technology; a commercial AI platform (Zakos & Capper, 2008). CLIVE was found to perform well in holding conversations with English and Greek speakers. Chatbots are being used as customer service providers at a University Library in Germany where four different chatbots are all built on ALICE (Christensen, 2007). ASKademicus in March 2004, one of first to be used in a library, helps users to navigate library services (Christensen, 2007). Stella is intended to increase student’s awareness of electronic information resources. The internet Navigation Assistant helps users with the Hamburg public library’s website and came online on
January 2006. The most recent chatbot provides federated searches. Another group has developed a chatbot that functions as an information retrieval tool to translate Arabic and English (Shawar, B., & Atwell, 2007).
Chatbots are used in social networks, gaming and ecommerce (Shawar, B., & Atwell, 2004). For example, in ecommerce, they help users to find information about products and services. A user would ask question using natural language and the chatbot would display the needed page or answer (Shawar et al., 2007). In addition, shopbots or softbots like Atira in shopping24.de website try to provide conversation-based interaction (Spiekermann, 2008).